Step 11d – Inspection, Bargeboard, and Gable Overhangs

I’m tantalizingly close to reaching that glorious step where rain will no longer be able to harm the OSB roof sheathing or subfloor but a few key steps remain.  Most importantly, there is currently no roof sheathing on the gable end overhangs.  As you can see in the pictures, I only installed the sheathing up to the gable end trusses instead of extending it out to the ends of the lookouts, which is where the roof will eventually end.  The reason for this is that the bottom of the gable end overhang sheathing is going to be visible from below, and the OSB I used for roof sheathing has a very cheap look to it and can tend to flake off when exposed to the elements.  Plywood looks ten times better and will hold up much better to the elements, so it’s worth making the transition from the OSB to plywood just for those gable end overhangs.  This part of the roof isn’t structural however, so it wasn’t part of the roof sheathing inspection I passed yesterday.  The plywood is only to add a nice aesthetic touch.

The other item that needs to be installed before adding the roof underlay is the bargeboard.  Made of the same primed, textured wood as the fascia, the bargeboard will attach to the fascia and run along the edge of the lookouts up to the ridge.  Once it is in place, the roof will be entirely surrounded by this finished wood.  Before nailing it on, I climbed up the roof and measured the lookouts, recording the length of the shortest lookout on each side (they varied up to 3/8″).

I grabbed what was left of the primed, textured, wood and beveled the top edge at 22.6 degrees on each side, to form the shape you see below.  I also cut each piece to the length I had recorded for the side it would be attached to.  I toenailed these pieces on to each end of the roof ridge, and then snapped a chalk line across the lookouts, holding one end of the line on the edge of the ridge pieces, and the other just grazing the end of the shortest lookout.  This gave me a visual as to which of the lookouts needed to be trimmed just a bit so they would all be even.  After cutting them down with a circular saw, I mitered one end of the bargeboard and brought it up to the roof.  I eased it over the edge and lined up the top side with the tops of the lookouts, clamping it in place.  Next, I marked the other end of the bargeboard where it crossed the center of the ridge piece and cut it along this line, then nailed it to the ends of the lookouts using galvanized nails (as these nails will be exposed to the elements).

With the bargeboard in place, I ripped a sheet of plywood in half the long way, and used my winch and rails to reel the two pieces up to the top of the roof.  I lined one end up so it was about a 1/4″ from the edge of the bargeboard and tacked it down to the lookouts.  I then ran my circular saw along the opposite edge of the plywood deep enough so it would cut through the OSB sheathing.  This trimmed off about 3/4″ of the OSB sheathing, exposing half of the gable end truss to support the plywood.  This was important so I would have something to nail the plywood into.  I cut the second piece of plywood so it lined up over the fascia the same distance as the OSB sheathing, and then thoroughly nailed the plywood to the gable end truss, lookouts, and bargeboard.

Here you can see the process in action with step 1 trimming the lookouts on the right side, step 2 placing the bargeboard on the left side, and then step 3 adding the plywood towards the center of the pic

As I’ve said before, there’s nothing quite like working on a roof when it’s a beautiful day!

Step 11c – Install Roof Sheathing

I had been waiting for today for almost a month!  It has been so frustrating to watch the second story OSB subfloor get wet day after day, but today I took a big step towards getting a roof over it as I installed the first row of roof sheathing.  With all the inclement weather, I had spent plenty of time figuring out how to get the roof sheathing installed as safely and efficiently as possible.  Carrying a 4 foot by 8 foot sheet of OSB is hard enough on the ground, so the thought of bringing it 20 feet up a ladder didn’t sit very well with me.  My solution was to buy a cheap winch online and build some “rails” so I could simply stand on the trusses and crank up the OSB like I was reeling in a fish.

It worked like a charm!  The webbing that came with the winch wasn’t long enough but I had some extra rope that worked just fine.  Before I started reeling the sheathing up to the roof I used a chalk reel to snap a line 4 feet up from the fascia.  The goal is to have the top edge of the OSB sheathing line up directly over the top of the fascia.  With that done I brought up the first panel and matched it up with my chalk line.  Just like the subfloor, the roof sheathing must be nailed to the trusses every 12″ on the inside parts of the panel and every 6″ on the edges.  I used my tape measure to ensure that each truss was on layout 2 feet center to center before nailing down the OSB. Once the sheathing is nailed down the trusses aren’t going to go anywhere so this was my last chance to make sure they were nice and straight.

Before installing the next row of panels, I installed an ‘H-Clip’ roughly halfway between each of the trusses, as shown above.  These will ensure that there is enough space left between the panels to allow them to expand and contract due to heat and moisture.

Here is a more closeup look of the clip.  Once they were installed I repeated the steps on the next layer of sheathing.  When I had reached the top layer, I measured to the top of the ridge of the roof and ripped the panel down to size so it would end at the ridge line.  I moved in six inches from the edge, and then ripped it down an additional 3 inches.  This will leave a 3″ gap on each side at the top of the roof sheathing for the ridge vent.  The ridge vent will work together with the baffles to properly aerate the attic and dry out any moisture that finds its way in.  As I will show later when I start on the shingles, the gap for the ridge vent will be covered with a material that will allow air, but not moisture, to go through it.  I am currently only halfway through the roof sheathing, but hope to get the rest of it done tomorrow.  The building inspector only comes into town on Tuesdays so if I don’t finish tomorrow I will have to wait an entire week before starting the roof.  The inspector must check up on the roof sheathing, specifically proper nailing of the roof sheathing, before I can start on the shingles.

Once the other half of the sheathing is complete, I can remove the vertical 2x4s from the gable end.

Step 9a – Install Blocking and Plumbing

Before the subfloor can be nailed onto the joists, small sections of 2×12 called “blocking” must be installed.  Together with the rim joists they ensure that the floor joists won’t roll onto their flat sides where they can easily bend.  The blocking is placed along the top of the interior bearing wall at the exact place where the two floor joist spans meet and nailed perpendicularly between them.   I kept all the plumbing of the house on interior walls so I wouldn’t take any precious space away from my insulation inside the exterior walls.  My interior bearing wall being the major wall on the first floor, this meant that it had a significant amount of plumbing running through it.  The plumbing runs through the middle of the wall, and all of the DWV pipes must be vented vertically through the roof.  These pipes want to go through the middle of the interior bearing wall and exit right into the middle of my blocking!  My solution was to simply install a double set of blocking with the pipes in the middle.

Here you see the normal blocking at the outer edges of the pic and the modified blocking in the middle. The 2×6 boards at the bottom of the pic are for me to walk on until the floorboards are installed! Note how the joists from each exterior wall meet in the middle at this point.

In addition, I had planned for some of these pipes to run horizontally in the space between the floor joists.  For example, the washing machine is on the second floor, but the space I want to put it in doesn’t have a wall below it on the first floor.  If I didn’t run the pipe horizontally I would have a pipe for the dirty clothes water running through the center of the guest bedroom!  So this horizontal run would need to make a turn through the blocking so it would run in the space between the floor joists.

The pipe on the left makes a 90 degree turn to run between the floor joists while the one on the left goes straight through the blocking and will continue through the 2nd floor walls and out through the roof

 

 

All of my planning really paid off because some of the runs of ABS pipe were required to have cleanouts.  If I hadn’t installed them before running the vertical pipe up through the blocking it would have been a pain to do later.  The one you see below will be covered with a bench seat at the dining room table.  In case of a plumbing emergency the cushion can be taken off the seat and a hinged panel will provide access to the cleanout.

For a contractor, calling the plumber out before the entire house is framed is unusual.  I’m sure they would have been able to come up with a solution without breaking their routine, but I’m also pretty sure it wouldn’t have been as neat and efficient as my solution.  For me, it was very easy to stop framing for half the day and work on some plumbing so that I could finish with the blocking.  Yet another great example of the flaws in building a house with contractors…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Step 9 – Frame the Floor

Flooring is pretty basic, and if you’ve ever noticed how a deck is built then you have the gist of it.  Long boards called joists are laid out parallel with each other and on their sides so they won’t bend easily.  4×8 sheets of plywood or OSB are laid out over the top of the joists to create a flat, sturdy surface.  The joists are supported by some of the first floor walls.  As I mentioned before, one of my interior walls is a load bearing wall, so it will be used to transfer half the weight of the second floor of the house down to the ground .  The 2nd floor interior walls will rest on the subfloor, which will in turn rest on the floor joists.  Since the floor joists span all the way from the exterior walls to the interior bearing wall, they will need to handle a significant amount of the weight of the house, which they will then transfer to the exterior walls and the interior load bearing wall.  The pic below might help you visualize…

Notice how much weight is carried by the load-bearing wall in the middle

Proper joist sizes can easily be figured out from the IRC (International Residential Building Code) using a table in the same way you calculate header sizes.  For me, that meant looking at the part of the table that dealt with 24 inch joist spacing since that is what I’m using.  Then figure out what the greatest distance the joists will span is, which for me is just slightly over 14 feet.  Last, select a lumber option that supports a minimum span greater than this distance.  I decided to go with #2 2×12 Douglas Fir, which supports a span of up to 16’6″.  Going with an option suitable for a span larger than what I need will hopefully give me a less bouncy, less squeaky floor.

Lifting 16 foot 2×12’s 10 feet up in the air solo is a great workout.  After cutting each joist to length.  I lifted one side up in the air and rested it on the top of an exterior wall.  Next I moved a ladder near the interior bearing wall and lifted the other end of the joist up so I could rest it on the top of the ladder.  After climbing up a few rungs on the ladder, I had enough height where I could lift the joist from the top of the ladder to rest on the interior wall.  Just as with the wall framing, it was important to ensure that the crown of the lumber faced the sky.

The first joists I installed are called the rim joists.  These run on the top of the exterior walls perpendicular to the rest of the joists.  Above you can see the rim joist on the left side of the corner and the outermost floor joist on the right side.  Using rim joists ensures that there is a perimeter of joists all the way around the house even though the majority of the joists run in the same direction.  The rim joists are “toe-nailed” to the top plate, meaning that they are nailed diagonally.  Once the rim joists are up, the other joists are placed perpendicular between them and nailed to the rim joists, as well as toe-nailed to the exterior walls.

The opening for the stairway required a little bit of detail.  The code requires joists to be doubled all around the opening.  In addition, any time you are unable to rest a joist on a bearing wall, you must use steel joist hangers to carry the weight around to where it can reach a bearing wall.  The manufacturer of the hangers (in this case Simpson Strong-Tie) tells you what kind of nails you must use and what amount of weight the hanger is capable of carrying.

Step 8c – Plumb and Line

With all of the 1st floor walls complete, it was neat to be able to navigate the rooms and get an idea of the feel of the dimensions of the house.   Before moving on to the 2nd floor I needed to take some time to ensure that all of my framing so far is straight, level, square, plumb, and true.  (For those who don’t know what the last two are, plumb means perpendicular to level and true means both level and plumb at the same time)  Once the subfloor is nailed to the floor joists it will tie everything together so this was my last chance to make sure it was just right.

I started by double checking the lengths of the top and bottom plates, and the lengths of the corner studs.  Next, I used a plumb bob to ensure each of the corners was plumb.  I used long 2×4’s nailed diagonally and nail stakes in the ground to push or pull the end of each wall as needed to plumb the ends of the wall.  I knew the foundation was level, so since the wall lengths were equal and plumb, I knew the walls were square and true as well.  I repeated the process for each wall, and then checked each wall for straightness.  Now I knew the corners were right, but in the middle of the wall there might be some waving.  I nailed a 2×4 block to the top corner on each end of the wall and stretched a string tightly between them.  Using a third 2×4 block, I checked all along the wall to ensure this block fit snugly between the wall and the string.  Where necessary I used additional bracing to make the wall straight.

With the exterior walls (hopefully) perfect, it was time for the interior walls.  I used a powder actuated hammer tool to nail the bottom plates of the interior walls into place.  This uses a .22 caliber explosive to drive the nail into the hard concrete.  You insert the nail into one end, put the .22 caliber load in the middle, and then strike the other end with a hammer.  The blow ignites the load, driving the nail in.  I double checked all of the measurements for the walls to ensure they were straight and then used the powder actuated hammer tool to attach them to the concrete.

Once again, I used the plumb bob to square up the walls and attached them to the exterior walls with a splice plate.  I used additional bracing on the one long wall, but the others were so short that they should stay straight.

With this crucial step of straightening done, I was now confident enough to get going on the joists.